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Before and After Muhammad : The First Millennium Refocused (Garth FOWDEN)

Before and After Muhammad : The First Millennium Refocused (Garth FOWDEN)

FOWDEN Garth, Before and After Muhammad : The First Millennium Refocused, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2013, 248 p. ISBN 9781400848164

L’auteur

Garth Fowden est Directeur de recherche à l’Institut de Recherche Historique (National Research Foundation) À Athènes. Il est également professeur de religions abrahamiques à l’Université de Cambridge.

Présentation

Islam emerged amid flourishing Christian and Jewish cultures, yet students of Antiquity and the Middle Ages mostly ignore it. Despite intensive study of late Antiquity over the last fifty years, even generous definitions of this period have reached only the eighth century, whereas Islam did not mature sufficiently to compare with Christianity or rabbinic Judaism until the tenth century. Before and After Muhammad suggests a new way of thinking about the historical relationship between the scriptural monotheisms, integrating Islam into European and West Asian history.

Garth Fowden identifies the whole of the First Millennium—from Augustus and Christ to the formation of a recognizably Islamic worldview by the time of the philosopher Avicenna—as the proper chronological unit of analysis for understanding the emergence and maturation of the three monotheistic faiths across Eurasia. Fowden proposes not just a chronological expansion of late Antiquity but also an eastward shift in the geographical frame to embrace Iran.

In Before and After Muhammad, Fowden looks at Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alongside other important developments in Greek philosophy and Roman law, to reveal how the First Millennium was bound together by diverse exegetical traditions that nurtured communities and often stimulated each other.

Table des matières

Prefatory Note and Acknowledgments ix
Abbreviations xi

Chapter 1. INCLUDING ISLAM 1
The West and the Rest 1
Edward Gibbon 5
Islam and late Antiquity 9
Summary 15

Chapter 2. TIME : BEYOND LATE ANTIQUITY 18
The roots of late antique studies 18
Burckhardt to Strzygowski 23
The Orient and Islam : Views from Vienna 30
Pirenne to the present 37

Chapter 3. A NEW PERIODIZATION : THE FIRST MILLENNIUM 49
Decline versus transformation 49
Maturations 53
Monotheist historiography 68
For and against the First Millennium 82

Chapter 4. SPACE : AN EASTWARD SHIFT 92
Discovering the Mediterranean 92
Discovering the East 96
Empires and commonwealths 101
The Mountain Arena 116

Chapter 5. EXEGETICAL CULTURES 1 : ARISTOTELIANISM 127
Greek Aristotelianism 129
Christian polemic 136
Aristotle in Latin, Armenian, and Syriac 139
Alexandria to Baghdad 146
Arabic Aristotelianism 153

Chapter 6. EXEGETICAL CULTURES 2 : LAW AND RELIGION 164
Roman law 166
Rabbinic Judaism 173
Patristic Christianity 181
Islam 188

Chapter 7. VIEWPOINTS AROUND 1000 : ṬŪS, BASRA,
BAGHDAD, PISA 198
Tūs/Iran 199
Basra/Encyclopedism 204
Baghdad/Rationality 207
Pisa/The Latin West 212
Prospects for Further Research 219
Map : the Eurasian Hinge, with Circum-Arabian Trade Routes 106
Index 225

Voir en ligne : Princeton University Press

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