PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
Recent events in the East must have convinced us
that we have not discharged our whole duty towards the Mohammedan world, by praying once
a year that God may have " mercy upon all ... .
Turks, .... and take from them all ignora^ice,
hardness of heart, and contempt of His word.’’ Nor
can it any longer suffice, t^-.multiply learned treatises
on Islam, without lav^ig before the Church some
really feasible proposition, how to reach the 200
millions of Moslems, so large a proportion of whom
are under British rule, and who to this day con-
stitute fully one-third of the entire Misadon field
of the world.
This book avows a purely practical purpose.
The foot-notes are intended for the few who might
feel disposed to question certain statements, or to
pursue the subject still further. The text is en-
tirely independent of the notes ; and those who wish to ignore them will not, it is hoped, object
to being fiimished with the authority for every
important statement, and the original of every
It is not only since the Mahommedans have
come so prominently before Europe, but many years
ago, that the author first commenced gathering
information upon the subject of this volume, — and
that, during a sojourn in Egypt, Arabia, Palestine,
East Africa, Abyssinia, and more especially in
The work is now published with a view to
cherish, if possible, the missionary spirit which has
been called forth by recent events ; and to place
some of the leading truths of Christianity anti-
thetically to the falsities and perversions of the
Koran, so as to render the comparison available
for actual missionary operations.
May God, in His infinite mercy, " stir up," by
this, or any other means, " the spirit of the rem-
nant of His people," that they may no lorxger
neglect to do this "work in the house of the
Lord of Hosts."
Zell, Febroary 10th, 1859.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
Tms book first appeared in 1859, iinder the title
of " Ishmael : or, a Natural History of Islamism,
and its Relation to Christianity,’* since which time
800 copies have been circulated. It is now issued
with some corrections and alterations, in a cheaper
form, and under a less ambiguous titie.
The entire proceeds of the volume were devoted,
as intimated on the original titie-page, towards
founding a special Society for Evangelising the
Mohammedans. It is now purposed to give all
further profits to the Moslem Mission Society ^ which
has since come into operation.
The main body of the Work was left intact,
excepting only the correction of a few mistakes.
The last Chapter of the book, in its original
state, chiefly advocated the need of a special
Society ; the corresponding Chapter now limits
itself to a general review of the present condition
of the Mohammedan world, and a brief notice of
Christian Missions to Moslems, in ancient and
East Ham, E., Aug. 6tfa, 1865.
Table des matières
MOHAMMED AND HIS CREED.
i. THE FORERUNNERS OF MOHAMMED, p. 5 — 16.
Islam tbe type of faith adapted to the Arab mind. The mystery
of the Incarnation. General denial of the Divine Sonship of Christ
in the Apostolic age. Gerinthus and his heresy. The heresy of the
Ebionites. Who where the Antichnsts in the days of St. John.
The Samosatenians. The Arian heresy. Islam absorbed and sup-
planted all the Christian heresies which previously denied the Gk)d-
head of the Redeemer.
ii, THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH, p, 16 45.
Name and character of the land of its birth. The inhabitauts of
Arabia. Ishmaelite descent of the ArsJ>s. The character of the
Arabs predicted. The wild ass or the Dsigetai. Ishmaelites and
Israelites : the only two nationalities surviving of ancient days.
The Patriarchal faith in Arabia. Admixture of idolatry. Tbe
Kaaba at Mecca, the ancient Pagan sanctuary. Composite nature
iii. THE AGE, AND CHABACTIR OF MOHAMMED, p. 54 — 99.
Political aspect of the age in which Mohammed was bom. His
age in a reUgious point of view. State of Judaism in Arabia. De-
plorable state of Christianity in Arabia : deification of the Virgin
Mary. Arabia at that time a reputed place of refuge for persecuted
heresies. Distraction of the Arabs amidst Christian heresy, Chris-
tian orthodozyy Judaism and idolatry. Honest minds groaning for
light. The tribe of Mohammed. His family. His fits in child-
hood. His private life. Career as a prophet. Struggles and bat-
tles. The poisoned lamb of the Jewess. Mohammed’s last moments.
His appearance and habits. His character. Commenced his career
in honest sincerity. Degenerates.
iv. HISTORY AND DOGMAS 0F THE KORAN p. 99 — 142.
Name of El Koran. Versions of the Koran. Revoked passages.
Original collection. Prevailing confusion. Real order of the Suras.
The alleged divine character of the EoraQ. The Unity of the (God-
head. Attributes of hoUness ; omnipotence ; mercy ; righteoosness.
Anthropology of the Koran ; creation of man ; immortality of the
soul ; fall of man. Doctrine of Angels. Concerning the devil and
genii. Besnrrection and judgment. Oeremonial ii^jnnctions : prayer
and fasting. Alms and pilgrimage. Sacrifices and circumcision*
y. WHAT MOHAMMED BORROWED FROM JUDAISM p. 142 — 179.
More acquainted with the Jewish traditions than with the Old
Testament. Mohammed’s interest to borrow. Plagiarism from
Judaism. Hebrew names and terms. Hebrew ideas borrowed from
the Talmud. Doctrines borrowed. Talmudic demonology. Moral
precepts. Historical incidents : patriarchs before the flood and
Babbinical fables. Noah ; Hud or Ebcr ; Abraham ; Isaac ; Ishmael ;
Jacob ; Joseph. Moses a leading figure. Fables. The golden calf
lowing or roaring. Korah’s riches. Aaron. David and Solomon.
Queen of Shebaand Talmudic legends. Elijah ; ’’Jonah the man
of the fish." Job and Ezra.
Vi. WHAT HE BORROWED FROM CHRISTIANITY, p. 179 — 218.
More at home in the apocryphal traditions than in canonical Scrip-
tures. The childhood of Jesus. Apocryphal Gospels. Parents
of the Virgin Mary. Joseph never named. The birth of Christ.
His childhood. The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy. Miracles of
Christ. The Ministry of Christ. Denial of the crucifixion. Titianus.
Christ’s Ascension. Supposed Tritheism of the Christians. The
Virgin Mary said to be no goddess. Divinity of Christ denied.
Titles given to Jesus in the Koran. The (Gospel allowed to come
’ from God. The Gospel of St. Barnabas alleged to have prophesied of
Mohammed. Double opinion of Christianity set forth in the Koran :
one assuming a perfectly peaceful, the other a hostile relation to
Christianity. Importance of disabusing the mind of Moslems.
vii. SPREAD AND SUCCESS OF ISLAM, p. 218 — 258.
Spread over the whole of Arabia in twelve years. Syria and
Palestine. Jerus^em capitulates to Omar. Egypt and North Afirica :
Alexandria ; embassy from Cyrenaica. Irak subdued. Persia. The
Omayades. Islam introduced into Syria. The entrance of Tarik
into Spain. Beverses in Gaul by Charles Martel. Spread in China
and India. Mongols and Tartars found the Ottoman empire. Bajesid :
project to feed his horses at the high altar of St, Peter’s at Rome.
Peaoeful spread of Islam by Missionary efforts in the interior of
Africa. Caoses of success and permanence enumerated.
Viii. CHARACTER AND INFLUENCE OF ISLAM, p. 253 — 816.
Flaws in the legislature of Islam. Oaths wantonly made and
broken. Vain oaths and peijury. Ii^urious effects of the Sonna.
Warlike and cruel fanaticism. Lust of persecution. Social and
domestic sores. Polygamy, its prejudicial effects. Facility of
Divorce. Slavery and Bulocracy. A hint to the Statesmen of the
present day. Form of Government. Compulsion and bloodshed.
Islam Predestination, its effects. Sects and heresies 6f Islam briefly
reviewed. Mystical Sufiism in Persia. Effects of Moslem sectari-
anism. Effects upon literature, oonmierce, arts and sciences.
Decay, depopulation, devastation and demoralisation.
CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM CONTRASTED.
Introduction, p. 316 — 321.
i. INTEGRITY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT, p. 321 — 355.
Names, division and number of the books of the Old Testament.
Collection of the books. Preservation by the Christians. Christian
catalogues. Origin of various Beadings. No wilful corruption
on record. Wilful corruption impossible. Internal evidence.
Historical evidence. Versions : Chaldee, Septuagint, Peshito,
Hexapl% Itala^ Vulgata. Mysterious absence of Arabic versions.
Early Arabic versions destroyed. Their early existence proved.
ii. THE INTEGRITY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, p. 355 — 397.
The New Testament Scriptures known to the Apostolic Fathers.
Known to the Early Fathers of the Church. Quoted by enemies
and heretics. Catalogues of canonical books. Origin of various
readings. Collection and preservation. Instance of wilful corrup-
tion and how dealt with by the Church. Proved by ancient
Manuscripts. Ancient versions. The Peshito ; two other Syrian
versions ; Armenian and Egyptian translations. Latin versions.
British versions in the days of Bede. Corruptions moraOy im-
possible. Admitted by Moslems.
ill. THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN p. 897 — i35.
SymptomB of imposture in the one case. Historical feature of
the Old Testament shown in detail. Admissions of the Kann,
Hint from the Hebrew Soriptures being read from right to left.
Organic connection of the Bible acknowledged in the Koran. Tbe
Bible a standing miracle of Gkxl’s power and wisdom. Is the Koran
the so-called miracle it is pretended to be ? Internal connection of
the New Testament Scriptures, and the contradictory charMSter
of the contents of the Koran. Absolute mistakes of the Koran which
admit of no ez^ilanation.
iv. TRINITY AND UNITY, p. 436 — 447.
Symbolical anthropomorphisms. The moral attributes of Ood.
His metaphysical attributes. Distortion of the character of God in
the Koran. Allah a metaphysical deity. The belief in the Holy
Trinity. Caution to Christian Missionaries. The dogma of the *
Holy Trinity above reason. The creeds of the Church do not express
the mystery, but seek to protect it against Unitarianism and Trithe-
ism. Matter of fact evidence that neither the Incarnation nor the
Trinity are irrational. Metaphysical Monotheism satisfies neither
faith nor reason.
V. CHRIST AND MOHAMMED, p. 447—470.
The Divine Sonship of Christ proved from the Koran. The mi-
racles which Mohammed is said by tradition to have performed. If
performed he is a lying prophet, since in the Koran he repeatedly
denies that he wrought any miracles. Are miracles in themselves a
true evidence ? The miracles of our Lord. Misapplication of singlo
prophecies in the case of Mohammed. A full system of prophecies
fulfilled in Jesus Christ. Why the crucifixion and the atonement are
Yi. CHRISTIAN MISSIONS TO THE MOSLEMS p. 471.
What was done by our ancestors. Raymund Lully, the Martyr of
Moslem Missions, and the founder of the Arabic Professorships at
Salamanca, Bologna, Paris and Oxford. Other efforts of the Church
of Rome. Henry Martyn the modem Apostle to the Moslems.
The two Church Mission Societies. The Moslem Mission Society.
Syud Ahmed Khan the reformer of Islam and author of a Moslem
Commentary on the Holy Bible. Hopes and fears of the Church.
Hopeful signs and circumstances. Presentiments and prophesies,
Christ first appearing to Hagar. Special promises.